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Green molecules or Green Electrons: Is producing green H2 and transporting via H2 pipelines across intercontinental distances (<5000 km) the best option?

Due to long distances between hydrogen production hubs (low-carbon energy resources) and demand centers (industrial hubs), there is an urgency to analyze which might be the best option to transport green molecules over intercontinental distances (<5000 km). With the option of transporting hydrogen or transporting green electricity and converting it to hydrogen at destination, hydrogen pipelines and High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) lines are the most popular options for transport. There are flag ship projects announced for both with the European Hydrogen Backbone (EHB) for hydrogen pipelines and the Xlinks project for the HVDC lines. With both having their techno economic merits, there is no clear winner, and the choice has to be made based on other factors.
Here’s our take at Yamna!

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